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ammonium hydroxide
see ammonia solution

Ammonia solution, also known as ammonia water, ammonium hydroxide, ammoniacal liquorammonia liquoraqua ammoniaaqueous ammonia, or (inaccurately) ammonia, is a solution of ammonia in water. It can be denoted by the symbols NH3(aq). Although the name ammonium hydroxide suggests an alkali with the composition [NH+4][OH], it is actually impossible to isolate samples of NH4OH. The ions NH+4 and OH do not account for a significant fraction of the total amount of ammonia except in extremely dilute solutions.

Like other gases, ammonia exhibits decreasing solubility in solvent liquids as the temperature of the solvent increases. Ammonia solutions decrease in density as the concentration of dissolved ammonia increases. At 15.6 °C (60.1 °F), the density of a saturated solution is 0.88 g/ml and contains 35.6% ammonia by mass, 308 grams of ammonia per litre of solution, and has a molarity of approximately 18 mol/L. At higher temperatures, the molarity of the saturated solution decreases and the density increases.Upon warming of saturated solutions, ammonia gas is released.

Ammonia solution is available in a variety of concentrations

Aqueous ammonia is used in traditional qualitative inorganic analysis as a complexant and base. Like many amines, it gives a deep blue coloration with copper(II) solutions. Ammonia solution can dissolve silver oxide residues, such as those formed from Tollens' reagent. It is often found in solutions used to clean gold, silver, and platinum jewelry, but may have adverse effects on porous gem stones like opals and pearls

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